Category: University Level Guides

niels bohr ernest rutherford atomic theory

Origins of Atomic Theory

If all the knowledge of humanity was to be completely erased save for a single concept, which one should we choose to keep? The great physicist Richard Feynman once remarked that our best bet would be for atomic theory to...

chromatography columns resins art

Chromatography: A Concise Guide

Chromatography techniques are widely used, with the bulk of them being variations of liquid and gas chromatography. As a scientist, it is important to know the tools for analysis available, and how to apply them to your research. This guide...

earth space stratosphere atmosphere ozone chemistry

Ozone Chemistry in the Stratosphere

In 1985, British scientists Joe Farman, Jon Shanklin and Brian Gardiner reported that a growing ozone hole was present in the stratosphere above the South pole. This discovery directly led to the Montreal protocol, resulting in worldwide bans of ozone-depleting...

graphene graphic representation layers microscopy

An Introductory Guide to Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

To better understand the properties of a material, it is beneficial to visualize it. High-powered microscopy techniques enable scientists to visualize samples to learn about their surface structure. Some techniques focus on capturing physical images, whereas others scan the surface...