Category: University Level Guides

earth space stratosphere atmosphere ozone chemistry

Ozone Chemistry in the Stratosphere

In 1985, British scientists Joe Farman, Jon Shanklin and Brian Gardiner reported that a growing ozone hole was present in the stratosphere above the South pole. This discovery directly led to the Montreal protocol, resulting in worldwide bans of ozone-depleting...

graphene graphic representation layers microscopy

An Introductory Guide to Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

High-powered microscopy techniques enable scientists to visualize samples to learn about their surface structure. Some techniques focus on capturing physical images, whereas others scan the surface of a material by measuring the interactions between a probe and the surface. Atomic...

resin beads orange round hydrogen form

Basics of Ion Exchange

A simple yet extremely versatile tool, ion exchange systems are used to separate specific ions across a wide range of processes: synthesis, research, mining, even agriculture. Whether you’re a biochemist who needs some precious protein purified or an engineer looking...